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Progesterone and Estradiol Combination for Veterinary Use
by Barbara Forney, VMD
Progesterone and estradiol 17-beta combination (P and E) is commonly used as a management tool in broodmare practice. Demand for a reliable means of predicting or regulating estrus and ovulation in the mare has increased with the common use of cooled or frozen semen, embryo transfer or other forms of appointment breeding. This combination is more effective in suppressing follicular activity during the treatment period than progesterone alone. At present this drug combination, when used with prostaglandin, is the most reliable means of estrus synchronization.
The most commonly followed protocol for estrus regulation or synchronization is once a day IM injection of 150mg of progesterone combined with 10 mg of estradiol for 10 days. On the tenth day prostaglandin is given in addition to the last P and E shot. Different studies vary in their results, but about 80% of mares given this treatment regimen will ovulate between eight and 10 days after the last injection. P and E also is used for pregnancy maintenance and is accepted as safe in the pregnant and lactating mare. P and E may be used to delay the first postpartum estrus. Pony breeds are similar to horses in their response to P and E.
Progesterone and Estradiol Combination Side Effects
The most common side effect is injection site reaction. These reactions usually respond to hot compresses and NSAIDs.
Compounds containing progesterone should not be used in mares with chronic uterine infections.
Rifampin may decrease progesterone's activity. It is difficult to envision an occasion when a broodmare would be on both rifampin and P and E.
No specific information was found regarding overdose in the mare.
About the Author
Dr. Barbara Forney is a veterinary practitioner in Chester County, Pennsylvania. She has a master's degree in animal science from the University of Delaware and graduated from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine in 1982.
She began to develop her interest in client education and medical writing in 1997. Recent publications include portions of The Pill Book Guide to Medication for Your Dog and Cat, and most recently Understanding Equine Medications published by the Bloodhorse.
Dr. Forney is an FEI veterinarian and an active member of the AAEP, AVMA, and AMWA.
You can purchase books by Dr. Forney at
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